In a significant breakthrough for rhino conservation, scientists have successfully created three northern white rhino embryos. With the last remaining male northern white rhino dying in 2018 and only two critically endangered females left in the world, this is a massive step for the subspecies’ survival. Can the white rhino be saved from extinction?
Created in Avantea laboratory in Italy, the embryos were formed by inseminating frozen sperm into eggs taken from the two Kenyan-based females. The fertilised eggs will be transferred into a younger surrogate southern white rhino as the two remaining northern white females are too old to carry a pregnancy.
HOW RESEARCHERS PLAN TO SAVE THE WHITE RHINO
Researchers of the “BioRescue” project say their goal is to create a viable (>20 unrelated animals) breeding population of northern white rhinos. But, they warn, this could take decades and is not without challenges. Since the population of northern white rhino is so small, genetic diversity will remain low for this endangered species.
At Rockwood, we support all scientific research efforts to preserve genetic material and diversity for rhino conservation. With the recently created rhino embryos being significant in preserving the northern white rhino, the method used can also contribute to the survival of other endangered rhino species.
Collecting genetic material of as many different rhino populations and individuals as possible is vital to global rhino conservation efforts. If rhino subspecies numbers get critically low, genes that have been lost due to decreasing numbers can then be reintroduced.
View the video here:
HOW ROCKWOOD HAS HELPED THE WHITE RHINO
In 2019, Rockwood hosted the ground-breaking Hemmersbach Rhino Force Cryovault project, this breakthrough for endangered species is led by some of the world’s leaders in genetic research. Their aim is to create the biggest genetic reservoir for southern white rhinos in the world. Sperm, eggs and other genetic material of African rhinos is collected, frozen and stored in a biobank for future use. These collections contribute to population genetics research and are used for rhino breeding projects through assisted reproduction technologies.
DNA research at Rockwood could save the endangered southern white rhino species.
OUR GOAL FOR THE FUTURE OF THE WHITE RHINO
Our goal at Rockwood is to achieve healthy genetic diversity within our population of southern white rhinos in South Africa. We do this by obtaining and studying a detailed DNA profile on each of our rhinos. We can then select which males and females to breed, aiming to create the largest genetic diverse gene pool possible.
Once the DNA profiles of all Rockwood’s rhinos are known, we will expand our research to other locations in the country, including national parks, where we can swap bulls with “new” genes. By doing this we’ll be able to pass fresh genes on to other areas and create healthier and genetically robust populations of southern white rhino.
We’re aiming to create a higher genetic diversity within the population at Rockwood than anywhere else in the world.
Captive breeding of endangered species provides scientists with the benefit of increasing the gene pool of species. In the wild this is not possible. But genetic selection is highly critical because southern white rhinos went through a genetic bottleneck in the early 1900s. If captive breeding programmes are not done properly, it could have the opposite effect and create genetic weaknesses within a rhino species population. This is particularly crucial where rhino populations numbers are greatly diminished.
We believe our approach at Rockwood will eventually lead to a positive effect on the genetic diversity of the entire southern white rhino population.
RHINO HORN IN DEMAND
Many cultures in Asia value rhino horn as a potent traditional medicine as well as use it for valuable carvings. As a result, the demand for rhino horn in Asia continues to grow and fuel illegal trade. This has led to rampant rhino poaching in Africa which is rapidly pushing the species closer to extinction every day. On average, one rhino is killed every eight hours. In 2015, over a 1000 rhino were killed in South Africa alone. These numbers have dropped slightly over recent years, but the effect of poaching is still having devastating effects on the rhino population across Africa. The white rhino is not the only rhino species at risk, each and every rhino needs our help.
WE ARE RUNNING OUT OF TIME.
As guardians to over 300 endangered southern white rhino, Rockwood welcomes researchers, conservationists and volunteers to help further the study and science in preserving rhino populations.
We strive to stay abreast with globally advanced conservation techniques for the benefit of all rhino species.
But we can’t do it alone. We need your help.
Our doors are open to anyone who wants to help us in this race against extinction. Do you have a passion for nature and animals? Are you willing to get dirty? Then you too can contribute to the protection and preservation of Africa’s rhinos.
Don’t waste another day. Become part of the work we do. Sign up to volunteer today.
YOUR VOLUNTEER TASKS WILL INCLUDE:
- Feeding rhinos and other animals
- Monitor rhino health with rangers
- Upkeep of rhino camps
- Assist in data collection and capture
- Assist vets in dehorning, micro-chipping and pregnancy tests
- Provide care for orphaned rhino calves and any injured animals
- Check and maintain camera traps
- Clean and maintain horse stables
- Feed and care for horses
- Grooming and working with foals
- Check and maintain fences and gates
- Help kitchen staff prepare food
- Maintain vegetable garden
OTHER VOLUNTEER ACTIVITIES INCLUDE:
- Learn to ride horses and join Rockwood’s rangers in monitoring rhinos on horseback
- Develop activities and lessons for local schools and community engagement
- Photograph and write about events and experiences at Rockwood
- Help capture data onto research database
Africa’s giraffe populations are quietly diminishing. Known as the “silent extinction”, 40% of giraffes have vanished since the 1980s. Where once the continent was teeming with these graceful giants, only 68 000 now remain. Like most other species, habitat loss, poaching and the effects of civil unrest threaten their survival.
In the late 1800s, about 850 000 black rhinos existed in Africa. But, due to unregulated killing, only 100 000 remained by 1960. By 1995, just 2410 black rhinos remained. However, Africa’s black rhino population has more than doubled since the 1990s. Could we finally be seeing a payoff to decades of committed rhino conservation?
After the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus, many of China’s wet markets (where animals are sold as food or pets) were shut down. ‘Wildlife’ markets, on the other hand, sell live wild animals (often illegally obtained). The commercial sale of wild animals for pets, traditional medicines, or ornamental uses has not been outlawed.
From a population of around 10 000 white rhinos and 600 black rhinos in 2010, the numbers are now down to approximately 3 549 white rhinos and 268 black rhinos. Most rhinos were poached in Kruger National Park. If this trend continues, the entire rhino population currently protected by Kruger might be wiped out by 2030.
2020 hasn’t been easy for anyone — the effects of Covid-19 reached far and wide, and were felt in the realm of rhino conservation too. But, no matter what challenges come our way, we persevere and give our all to saving the Southern white rhino. We’d like to share nine conservation success stories from Rockwood for 2020.
We’re always looking for new ways to initiate rhino conservation. So when South Africa’s leading grill company, Megamaster, approached us about a collaboration, we were super excited. The key ingredient in Megamaster’s innovative new eco-friendly firelighter, called Rhino Balls, is our very own rhinos’ dung.